Modern philosophical thoughts on religion. The branch of philosophy called philosophy of religion is engaged in designating the essence of religion and investigating its general aspects. It takes up promoting, supporting and discrediting specific theories that are propagated by different religions. It deals also with analysing intellectual questions and traditional topics that fall under the rubric of religious theory: the theistic proofs, the rationality of belief in Lord, the problem of evil and the nature of religious language, and the like. This discipline of philosophy points and defines the function of religion in human life and the reason of its existence. It takes theism for granted and then works on philosophical questions from that perspective. Philosophy of religion also includes criticism of contemporary philosophical culture and self-conscious attempt to debate the general philosophical topics and problems. It aims at achieving deeper understanding of the main contours and features of faith. As a distinct discipline, philosophy of religion came into existence in the 18th century and since that time a lot of philosophers have been interested in religion, as it has always been treated as the greatest realisation of the human existence. Emanuel Swedenborg, one of the most outstanding Swedish philosophers, devoted the last 27 years of his life to writing books about religion. He reported having had visions of God, who introduced him to the spiritual world where he could observe Heaven and Hell and witness the Last Judgement. Having had a major spiritual awakening he did very detailed research into the Bible and published some books clarifying and correcting Christian doctrines. In this inner world, false doctrines were overthrown and good spirits, which had been trapped under the influence of bad spirits, were restored to freedom. Swedenborg’s theological works created the fundament of the Swedenborgian Church or, as it is sometimes called, the Church of the New Jerusalem. The Church has been teaching about life, life after death, love, faith and merciful God who joins us to Himself and whose laws are to promote our happiness. Swedenborg revealed the hidden meaning to the stories of Old and New Testament, the nature of the Lord and our spiritual growth. In his theological writings Swedenborg presented a view of God as the Divine Man, infinitely loving and at the centre of our being. He stressed the relationship between the spiritual and material worlds. Our thoughts and our feelings originate in the spiritual world, the final environment...